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UW-Madison Food Research Institute
Pictures of EAJ Eric A. Johnson

Core Executive Committee, Food Research Institute
Professor, Department of Bacteriology, UW-Madison

6303 Microbial Sciences Building
1550 Linden Drive
(608) 263-7944

Research Interests
Clostridium botulinum: control, toxins, genetics
Department Webpage
  • BA 1976, Fermentation Science, University of California, Davis
  • MS 1978, Food Science, University of California, Davis
  • ScD 1983, Food Microbiology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  • Postdoc, 1985, Bacterial Physiology and Genetics, Harvard Medical School
Research Focus

Our research interests concern the genetics, control, and toxins of Clostridium botulinum. We also study the use of naturally occurring antimicrobials in food.

Current Research Projects
  • Detection and survival of Clostridium difficile in milk and cheese slices.
  • Control of sporeformers, especially Clostridium botulinum, in foods.
  • Purification and characterization of botulinal neurotoxins.
  • Genetics and phylogeny of Clostridium botulinum.
  • Regulation of expression of botulinal neurotoxins.
  • Interspecies transfer of botulinal neurotoxin genes. 
  • Spore resistance mechanisms in clostridia.
  • Natural antimicrobials to control food-borne pathogens.
  • Assessment of the safety of new processing techniques, e.g. modified atmosphere packaging, for safety from botulism.
  • Development of botulinum neurotoxin as a pharmaceutical.
  • Biotechnology of yeasts.
Program Affiliations
  • University of Wisconsin–Madison Molecular and Environmental Toxicology Center
  • American Chemical Society; American Society for Microbiology; Anaerobe Society of the Americas; Institute of Food Technologists; International Association of Food Protection (IAFP); Society for Industrial Microbiology
Outreach / Selected Recent Presentations
  • “Clostridium difficile: A Foodborne Pathogen?” Food Research Institute Annual Meeting, May 22, 2013, Madison, WI. 
  • “Characterization of Clostridium botulinum A Subtype Neurotoxins.” Food Research Institute Annual Meeting, May 22, 2012, Madison, WI. 
  • “Alternate Detection Methods for Clostridium botulinum Toxins in Foods.” Food Research Institute Annual Meeting, May 17, 2011, Madison, WI. 
  • “Development of Nontoxigenic Surrogates of Clostridium botulinum Toxins and Strains for Food Defense Studies.” Food Research Institute Annual Meeting, May 18, 2010, Madison, WI. 
  • “New Detection Methods for Clostridium botulinum.” Food Research Institute Annual Meeting, April 29, 2009, Madison, WI. 


recent publication Blum FC, Tepp WH, Johnson EA, Barbieri JT. 2014. Multiple Domains of Tetanus Toxin Direct Entry into Primary Neurons. Traffic :
recent publication Peng L, Adler M, Demogines A, Borrell A, Liu H, Tao L, Tepp WH, Zhang SC, Johnson EA, Sawyer SL, Dong M. 2014. Widespread sequence variations in VAMP1 across vertebrates suggest a potential selective pressure from botulinum neurotoxins. PLoS Pathog. 10(7):e1004177 (PMC4092145)
Blum FC, Przedpelski A, Tepp WH, Johnson EA, Barbieri JT. 2014. Entry of a recombinant, full-length, atoxic tetanus neurotoxin into Neuro-2a cells. Infect. Immun. 82(2):873-81 (PMC3911378)
Wang D, Krilich J, Pellett S, Baudys J, Tepp WH, Barr JR, Johnson EA, Kalb SR. 2013. Comparison of the catalytic properties of the botulinum neurotoxin subtypes A1 and A5. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1834(12):2722-8
Silhár P, Eubanks LM, Seki H, Pellett S, Javor S, Tepp WH, Johnson EA, Janda KD. 2013. Targeting botulinum A cellular toxicity: a prodrug approach. J. Med. Chem. 56(20):7870-9 (PMC3880648)
Johnson EA, Lecomte JT. 2013. The globins of cyanobacteria and algae. Adv. Microb. Physiol. 63:195-272
Johnson EA. 2013. Biotechnology of non-Saccharomyces yeasts-the basidiomycetes. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 97(17):7563-77
Przedpelski A, Tepp WH, Kroken AR, Fu Z, Kim JJ, Johnson EA, Barbieri JT. 2013. Enhancing the protective immune response against botulism. Infect. Immun. 81(7):2638-44 (PMC3697623)
Chun CL, Ochsner U, Byappanahalli MN, Whitman RL, Tepp WH, Lin G, Johnson EA, Peller J, Sadowsky MJ. 2013. Association of toxin-producing Clostridium botulinum with the macroalga Cladophora in the Great Lakes. Environ. Sci. Technol. 47(6):2587-94
Peng L, Liu H, Ruan H, Tepp WH, Stoothoff WH, Brown RH, Johnson EA, Yao WD, Zhang SC, Dong M. 2013. Cytotoxicity of botulinum neurotoxins reveals a direct role of syntaxin 1 and SNAP-25 in neuron survival. Nat Commun 4:1472 (PMC4052923)
Guan Z, Johnston NC, Raetz CR, Johnson EA, Goldfine H. 2012. Lipid diversity among botulinum neurotoxin-producing clostridia. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) 158(Pt 10):2577-84
Whitemarsh RC, Pier CL, Tepp WH, Pellett S, Johnson EA. 2012. Model for studying Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin using differentiated motor neuron-like NG108-15 cells. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 427(2):426-30 (PMC3486637)
Strotman LN, Lin G, Berry SM, Johnson EA, Beebe DJ. 2012. Facile and rapid DNA extraction and purification from food matrices using IFAST (immiscible filtration assisted by surface tension). Analyst 137(17):4023-8
Peng L, Berntsson RP, Tepp WH, Pitkin RM, Johnson EA, Stenmark P, Dong M. 2012. Botulinum neurotoxin D-C uses synaptotagmin I and II as receptors, and human synaptotagmin II is not an effective receptor for type B, D-C and G toxins. J. Cell. Sci. 125(Pt 13):3233-42
Tepp WH, Lin G, Johnson EA. 2012. Purification and characterization of a novel subtype a3 botulinum neurotoxin. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 78(9):3108-13 (PMC3346436)
Henkel JS, Tepp WH, Przedpelski A, Fritz RB, Johnson EA, Barbieri JT. 2011. Subunit vaccine efficacy against Botulinum neurotoxin subtypes. Vaccine 29(44):7688-95 (PMC3209516)
Sun S, Suresh S, Liu H, Tepp WH, Johnson EA, Edwardson JM, Chapman ER. 2011. Receptor binding enables botulinum neurotoxin B to sense low pH for translocation channel assembly. Cell Host Microbe 10(3):237-47 (PMC3243646)
Jacobson MJ, Lin G, Tepp W, Dupuy J, Stenmark P, Stevens RC, Johnson EA. 2011. Purification, modeling, and analysis of botulinum neurotoxin subtype A5 (BoNT/A5) from Clostridium botulinum strain A661222. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 77(12):4217-22 (PMC3131645)
Peng L, Tepp WH, Johnson EA, Dong M. 2011. Botulinum neurotoxin D uses synaptic vesicle protein SV2 and gangliosides as receptors. PLoS Pathog. 7(3):e1002008 (PMC3068998)
Marshall KM, Bradshaw M, Johnson EA. 2010. Conjugative botulinum neurotoxin-encoding plasmids in Clostridium botulinum. PLoS ONE 5(6):e11087 (PMC2884020)
Nakai Y, Pellett S, Tepp WH, Johnson EA, Janda KD. 2010. Toosendanin: synthesis of the AB-ring and investigations of its anti-botulinum properties (Part II). Bioorg. Med. Chem. 18(3):1280-7 (PMC2819598)
Lin G, Tepp WH, Pier CL, Jacobson MJ, Johnson EA. 2010. Expression of the Clostridium botulinum A2 neurotoxin gene cluster proteins and characterization of the A2 complex. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76(1):40-7 (PMC2798633)
Bradshaw M, Marshall KM, Heap JT, Tepp WH, Minton NP, Johnson EA. 2010. Construction of a nontoxigenic Clostridium botulinum strain for food challenge studies. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76(2):387-93 (PMC2805223)
Helenius IT, Krupinski T, Turnbull DW, Gruenbaum Y, Silverman N, Johnson EA, Sporn PH, Sznajder JI, Beitel GJ. 2009. Elevated CO2 suppresses specific Drosophila innate immune responses and resistance to bacterial infection. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(44):18710-5 (PMC2773965)
Trott DL, Yang M, Gonzalez J, Larson AE, Tepp WH, Johnson EA, Cook ME. 2009. Egg yolk antibodies for detection and neutralization of Clostridium botulinum type A neurotoxin. J. Food Prot. 72(5):1005-11
Henkel JS, Jacobson M, Tepp W, Pier C, Johnson EA, Barbieri JT. 2009. Catalytic properties of botulinum neurotoxin subtypes A3 and A4. Biochemistry 48(11):2522-8 (PMC2701208)
Nakai Y, Tepp WH, Dickerson TJ, Johnson EA, Janda KD. 2009. Function-oriented synthesis applied to the anti-botulinum natural product toosendanin. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 17(3):1152-7 (PMC2661763)
Zhou H, Zhou B, Pellett S, Johnson EA, Janda KD. 2009. Selection and characterization of a human monoclonal neutralizing antibody for Clostridium Botulinum neurotoxin serotype B. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 19(3):662-4 (PMC2645068)
Iyer AV, Blinkova AL, Yang SY, Harrison M, Tepp WH, Jacobson MJ, Johnson EA, Bennett GN, Walker JR. 2008. Clostridium taeniosporum is a close relative of the Clostridium botulinum Group II. Anaerobe 14(6):318-24
Jacobson MJ, Lin G, Whittam TS, Johnson EA. 2008. Phylogenetic analysis of Clostridium botulinum type A by multi-locus sequence typing. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) 154(Pt 8):2408-15 (PMC2562668)
Raphael BH, Luquez C, McCroskey LM, Joseph LA, Jacobson MJ, Johnson EA, Maslanka SE, Andreadis JD. 2008. Genetic homogeneity of Clostridium botulinum type A1 strains with unique toxin gene clusters. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74(14):4390-7 (PMC2493146)
Jacobson MJ, Lin G, Raphael B, Andreadis J, Johnson EA. 2008. Analysis of neurotoxin cluster genes in Clostridium botulinum strains producing botulinum neurotoxin serotype A subtypes. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74(9):2778-86 (PMC2394882)
Baldwin MR, Tepp WH, Przedpelski A, Pier CL, Bradshaw M, Johnson EA, Barbieri JT. 2008. Subunit vaccine against the seven serotypes of botulism. Infect. Immun. 76(3):1314-8 (PMC2258812)
Marshall KM, Bradshaw M, Pellett S, Johnson EA. 2007. Plasmid encoded neurotoxin genes in Clostridium botulinum serotype A subtypes. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 361(1):49-54 (PMC2346372)
Kale RR, Clancy CM, Vermillion RM, Johnson EA, Iyer SS. 2007. Synthesis of soluble multivalent glycoconjugates that target the Hc region of botulinum neurotoxin A. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 17(9):2459-64
Hill KK, Smith TJ, Helma CH, Ticknor LO, Foley BT, Svensson RT, Brown JL, Johnson EA, Smith LA, Okinaka RT, Jackson PJ, Marks JD. 2007. Genetic diversity among Botulinum Neurotoxin-producing clostridial strains. J. Bacteriol. 189(3):818-32 (PMC1797315)
Arndt JW, Jacobson MJ, Abola EE, Forsyth CM, Tepp WH, Marks JD, Johnson EA, Stevens RC. 2006. A structural perspective of the sequence variability within botulinum neurotoxin subtypes A1-A4. J. Mol. Biol. 362(4):733-42
An GH, Cho MH, Johnson EA. 2005. Monocyclic carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in the yeast Phaffia rhodozyma (Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous). J. Biosci. Bioeng. 88(2):189-93
Baldwin MR, Tepp WH, Pier CL, Bradshaw M, Ho M, Wilson BA, Fritz RB, Johnson EA, Barbieri JT. 2005. Characterization of the antibody response to the receptor binding domain of botulinum neurotoxin serotypes A and E. Infect. Immun. 73(10):6998-7005 (PMC1230911)
Brehm-Stecher BF, Hyldig-Nielsen JJ, Johnson EA. 2005. Design and evaluation of 16S rRNA-targeted peptide nucleic acid probes for whole-cell detection of members of the genus Listeria. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71(9):5451-7 (PMC1214657)
Smith TJ, Lou J, Geren IN, Forsyth CM, Tsai R, Laporte SL, Tepp WH, Bradshaw M, Johnson EA, Smith LA, Marks JD. 2005. Sequence variation within botulinum neurotoxin serotypes impacts antibody binding and neutralization. Infect. Immun. 73(9):5450-7 (PMC1231122)
Johnson EA, Tepp WH, Bradshaw M, Gilbert RJ, Cook PE, McIntosh ED. 2005. Characterization of Clostridium botulinum strains associated with an infant botulism case in the United Kingdom. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43(6):2602-7 (PMC1151885)
Bradshaw M, Dineen SS, Maks ND, Johnson EA. 2004. Regulation of neurotoxin complex expression in Clostridium botulinum strains 62A, Hall A-hyper, and NCTC 2916. Anaerobe 10(6):321-33
Dong M, Tepp WH, Johnson EA, Chapman ER. 2004. Using fluorescent sensors to detect botulinum neurotoxin activity in vitro and in living cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(41):14701-6 (PMC522023)
Brehm-Stecher BF, Johnson EA. 2004. Single-cell microbiology: tools, technologies, and applications. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 68(3):538-59 (PMC515252)
Baldwin MR, Bradshaw M, Johnson EA, Barbieri JT. 2004. The C-terminus of botulinum neurotoxin type A light chain contributes to solubility, catalysis, and stability. Protein Expr. Purif. 37(1):187-95
Glass KA, Johnson EA. 2004. Antibotulinal activity of process cheese ingredients. J. Food Prot. 67(8):1765-9
Glass KA, Johnson EA. 2004. Factors that contribute to the botulinal safety of reduced-fat and fat-free process chesse products. J. Food Prot. 67(8):1687-93
Puhar A, Johnson EA, Rossetto O, Montecucco C. 2004. Comparison of the pH-induced conformational change of different clostridial neurotoxins. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 319(1):66-71
Dineen SS, Bradshaw M, Karasek CE, Johnson EA. 2004. Nucleotide sequence and transcriptional analysis of the type A2 neurotoxin gene cluster in Clostridium botulinum. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 235(1):9-16
Echavarri-Erasun C, Johnson EA. 2004. Stimulation of astaxanthin formation in the yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous by the fungus Epicoccum nigrum. FEMS Yeast Res. 4(4-5):511-9
Brehm-Stecher BF, Johnson EA. 2003. Sensitization of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli to antibiotics by the sesquiterpenoids nerolidol, farnesol, bisabolol, and apritone. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47(10):3357-60 (PMC201169)
Johnson EA, Phaff HJ. 2003. Phaffia rhodozyma: colorful odyssey. Int. Microbiol. 6(3):169-74
Dineen SS, Bradshaw M, Johnson EA. 2003. Neurotoxin gene clusters in Clostridium botulinum type A strains: sequence comparison and evolutionary implications. Curr. Microbiol. 46(5):345-52
Compton SR, Ball-Goodrich LJ, Zeiss CJ, Johnson LK, Johnson EA, Macy JD. 2003. Pathogenesis of mouse hepatitis virus infection in gamma interferon-deficient mice is modulated by co-infection with Helicobacter hepaticus. Comp. Med. 53(2):197-206
Peck RF, Johnson EA, Krebs MP. 2002. Identification of a lycopene beta-cyclase required for bacteriorhodopsin biogenesis in the archaeon Halobacterium salinarum. J. Bacteriol. 184(11):2889-97 (PMC135044)
Goodnough MC, Oyler G, Fishman PS, Johnson EA, Neale EA, Keller JE, Tepp WH, Clark M, Hartz S, Adler M. 2002. Development of a delivery vehicle for intracellular transport of botulinum neurotoxin antagonists. FEBS Lett. 513(2-3):163-8
Glass KA, Johnson EA. 2002. Formulating low-acid foods for botulinal safety. In: V.K. Juneja and J.N. Sofos (eds.) Control of Foodborne Microorganisms. Marcel Dekker, New York pp:323-350
Johnson EA, Bradshaw M. 2001. Clostridium botulinum and its neurotoxins: a metabolic and cellular perspective. Toxicon 39(11):1703-22
Jacoby RO, Ball-Goodrich L, Paturzo FX, Johnson EA. 2001. Prevalence of rat virus infection in progeny of acutely or persistently infected pregnant rats. Comp. Med. 51(1):38-42
Johnson EA, Evron Y, McCarty RE. 2001. Resonance energy transfer between tryptophan 57 in the epsilon subunit and pyrene maleimide labeled gamma subunit of the chloroplast ATP synthase. Biochemistry 40(6):1804-11
Dineen SS, Bradshaw M, Johnson EA. 2000. Cloning, nucleotide sequence, and expression of the gene encoding the bacteriocin boticin B from Clostridium botulinum strain 213B. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66(12):5480-3 (PMC92486)
Jacoby RO, Johnson EA, Paturzo FX, Ball-Goodrich L. 2000. Persistent rat virus infection in smooth muscle of euthymic and athymic rats. J. Virol. 74(24):11841-8 (PMC112467)
Malizio CJ, Goodnough MC, Johnson EA. 2000. Purification of Clostridium botulinum type A neurotoxin. Methods Mol. Biol. 145:27-39
Johnson EA. 1999. Clostridial toxins as therapeutic agents: benefits of nature's most toxic proteins. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 53:551-75
Larson AE, Johnson EA, Nelson JH. 1999. Survival of Listeria monocytogenes in commercial cheese brines. J. Dairy Sci. 82(9):1860-8
Maksymowych AB, Reinhard M, Malizio CJ, Goodnough MC, Johnson EA, Simpson LL. 1999. Pure botulinum neurotoxin is absorbed from the stomach and small intestine and produces peripheral neuromuscular blockade. Infect. Immun. 67(9):4708-12 (PMC96798)
Larson AE, Johnson EA. 1999. Evaluation of botulinal toxin production in packaged fresh-cut cantaloupe and honeydew melons. J. Food Prot. 62(8):948-52
Glass KA, Kaufman KM, Smith AL, Johnson EA, Chen JH, Hotchkiss J. 1999. Toxin production by Clostridium botulinum in pasteurized milk treated with carbon dioxide. J. Food Prot. 62(8):872-6
Bradshaw M, Goodnough MC, Johnson EA. 1998. Conjugative transfer of the Escherichia coli-Clostridium perfringens shuttle vector pJIR1457 to Clostridium botulinum type A strains. Plasmid 40(3):233-7
Angulo FJ, Getz J, Taylor JP, Hendricks KA, Hatheway CL, Barth SS, Solomon HM, Larson AE, Johnson EA, Nickey LN, Ries AA. 1998. A large outbreak of botulism: the hazardous baked potato. J. Infect. Dis. 178(1):172-7
Shek WR, Paturzo FX, Johnson EA, Hansen GM, Smith AL. 1998. Characterization of mouse parvovirus infection among BALB/c mice from an enzootically infected colony. Lab. Anim. Sci. 48(3):294-7
Ball-Goodrich LJ, Leland SE, Johnson EA, Paturzo FX, Jacoby RO. 1998. Rat parvovirus type 1: the prototype for a new rodent parvovirus serogroup. J. Virol. 72(4):3289-99 (PMC109804)
Glass KA, Kaufman KM, Johnson EA. 1998. Survival of bacterial pathogens in pasteurized process cheese slices stored at 30 degrees C. J. Food Prot. 61(3):290-4
Johnson EA, Lin WJ, Zhou YT, Bradshaw M. 1997. Characterization of neurotoxin mutants in Clostridium botulinum type A. Clin. Infect. Dis. 25 Su:S168-70
Gu WL, An GH, Johnson EA. 1997. Ethanol increases carotenoid production in Phaffia rhodozyma. J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 19(2):114-7
Schantz EJ, Johnson EA. 1997. Botulinum toxin: the story of its development for the treatment of human disease. Perspect. Biol. Med. 40(3):317-27
Leyer GJ, Johnson EA. 1997. Acid adaptation sensitizes Salmonella typhimurium to hypochlorous acid. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63(2):461-7 (PMC168336)
Larson AE, Yu RR, Lee OA, Price S, Haas GJ, Johnson EA. 1996. Antimicrobial activity of hop extracts against Listeria monocytogenes in media and in food. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 33(2-3):195-207
Hutson RA, Zhou Y, Collins MD, Johnson EA, Hatheway CL, Sugiyama H. 1996. Genetic characterization of Clostridium botulinum type A containing silent type B neurotoxin gene sequences. J. Biol. Chem. 271(18):10786-92
Johnson EA, Schroeder WA. 1996. Microbial carotenoids. Adv. Biochem. Eng. Biotechnol. 53:119-78
Lin WJ, Johnson EA. 1995. Genome analysis of Clostridium botulinum type A by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61(12):4441-7 (PMC167752)
Leyer GJ, Wang LL, Johnson EA. 1995. Acid adaptation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 increases survival in acidic foods. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61(10):3752-5 (PMC167674)
Schroeder WA, Johnson EA. 1995. Singlet oxygen and peroxyl radicals regulate carotenoid biosynthesis in Phaffia rhodozyma. J. Biol. Chem. 270(31):18374-9
Jacoby RO, Johnson EA, Ball-Goodrich L, Smith AL, McKisic MD. 1995. Characterization of mouse parvovirus infection by in situ hybridization. J. Virol. 69(6):3915-9 (PMC189117)
Gaertner DJ, Jacoby RO, Johnson EA, Paturzo FX, Smith AL. 1995. Persistent rat virus infection in juvenile athymic rats and its modulation by immune serum. Lab. Anim. Sci. 45(3):249-53
Zhou Y, Sugiyama H, Nakano H, Johnson EA. 1995. The genes for the Clostridium botulinum type G toxin complex are on a plasmid. Infect. Immun. 63(5):2087-91 (PMC173270)
Kihm DJ, Leyer GJ, An GH, Johnson EA. 1994. Sensitization of heat-treated Listeria monocytogenes to added lysozyme in milk. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60(10):3854-61 (PMC201895)
Zhou Y, Sugiyama H, Johnson EA. 1993. Transfer of neurotoxigenicity from Clostridium butyricum to a nontoxigenic Clostridium botulinum type E-like strain. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59(11):3825-31 (PMC182537)
Goodnough MC, Hammer B, Sugiyama H, Johnson EA. 1993. Colony immunoblot assay of botulinal toxin. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59(7):2339-42 (PMC182282)
Leyer GJ, Johnson EA. 1993. Acid adaptation induces cross-protection against environmental stresses in Salmonella typhimurium. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59(6):1842-7 (PMC182170)
Gaertner DJ, Jacoby RO, Johnson EA, Paturzo FX, Smith AL, Brandsma JL. 1993. Characterization of acute rat parvovirus infection by in situ hybridization. Virus Res. 28(1):1-18
Smith AL, Jacoby RO, Johnson EA, Paturzo F, Bhatt PN. 1993. In vivo studies with an "orphan" parvovirus of mice. Lab. Anim. Sci. 43(2):175-82
Goodnough MC, Johnson EA. 1992. Stabilization of botulinum toxin type A during lyophilization. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58(10):3426-8 (PMC183118)
Patterson-Curtis SI, Johnson EA. 1992. Roles of arginine in growth of Clostridium botulinum Okra B. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58(7):2334-7 (PMC195778)
Leyer GJ, Johnson EA. 1992. Acid adaptation promotes survival of Salmonella spp. in cheese. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58(6):2075-80 (PMC195729)
Schantz EJ, Johnson EA. 1992. Properties and use of botulinum toxin and other microbial neurotoxins in medicine. Microbiol. Rev. 56(1):80-99 (PMC372855)
Wang LL, Johnson EA. 1992. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes by fatty acids and monoglycerides. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58(2):624-9 (PMC195293)
Lin WJ, Johnson EA. 1991. Transposon Tn916 mutagenesis in Clostridium botulinum. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57(10):2946-50 (PMC183902)
Premaratne RJ, Lin WJ, Johnson EA. 1991. Development of an improved chemically defined minimal medium for Listeria monocytogenes. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57(10):3046-8 (PMC183920)
Brownstein DG, Smith AL, Jacoby RO, Johnson EA, Hansen G, Tattersall P. 1991. Pathogenesis of infection with a virulent allotropic variant of minute virus of mice and regulation by host genotype. Lab. Invest. 65(3):357-64
Gaertner DJ, Jacoby RO, Paturzo FX, Johnson EA, Brandsma JL, Smith AL. 1991. Modulation of lethal and persistent rat parvovirus infection by antibody. Arch. Virol. 118(1-2):1-9
Brandsma JL, Yang ZH, Barthold SW, Johnson EA. 1991. Use of a rapid, efficient inoculation method to induce papillomas by cottontail rabbit papillomavirus DNA shows that the E7 gene is required. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88(11):4816-20 (PMC51757)
Jacoby RO, Johnson EA, Paturzo FX, Gaertner DJ, Brandsma JL, Smith AL. 1991. Persistent rat parvovirus infection in individually housed rats. Arch. Virol. 117(3-4):193-205
Goodnough MC, Johnson EA. 1991. Control of Salmonella enteritidis infections in poultry by polymyxin B and trimethoprim. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57(3):785-8 (PMC182795)
Leyer GJ, Johnson EA. 1991. Repression of toxin production by tryptophan in Clostridium botulinum type E. Arch. Microbiol. 154(5):443-7
An GH, Bielich J, Auerbach R, Johnson EA. 1991. Isolation and characterization of carotenoid hyperproducing mutants of yeast by flow cytometry and cell sorting. Biotechnology (N.Y.) 9(1):70-3
Weir EC, Jacoby RO, Paturzo FX, Johnson EA. 1990. Infection of SDAV-immune rats with SDAV and rat coronavirus. Lab. Anim. Sci. 40(4):363-6
An GH, Johnson EA. 1990. Influence of light on growth and pigmentation of the yeast Phaffia rhodozyma. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 57(4):191-203
Weir EC, Jacoby RO, Paturzo FX, Johnson EA, Ardito RB. 1990. Persistence of sialodacryoadenitis virus in athymic rats. Lab. Anim. Sci. 40(2):138-43
Kihm DJ, Hutton MT, Hanlin JH, Johnson EA. 1990. Influence of transition metals added during sporulation on heat resistance of Clostridium botulinum 113B spores. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56(3):681-5 (PMC183405)
Rengpipat S, Johnson EA. 1989. Characterization of a Lactobacillus strain producing white crystals on cheddar cheese. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 55(10):2579-82 (PMC203125)
Patterson-Curtis SI, Johnson EA. 1989. Regulation of neurotoxin and protease formation in Clostridium botulinum Okra B and Hall A by arginine. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 55(6):1544-8 (PMC202901)
Sprenger GA, Hammer BA, Johnson EA, Lin EC. 1989. Anaerobic growth of Escherichia coli on glycerol by importing genes of the dha regulon from Klebsiella pneumoniae. J. Gen. Microbiol. 135(5):1255-62
Hughey VL, Wilger PA, Johnson EA. 1989. Antibacterial activity of hen egg white lysozyme against Listeria monocytogenes Scott A in foods. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 55(3):631-8 (PMC184171)
Hammer BA, Johnson EA. 1989. Purification, properties, and metabolic roles of NAD+-glutamate dehydrogenase in Clostridium botulinum 113B. Arch. Microbiol. 150(5):460-4
An GH, Schuman DB, Johnson EA. 1989. Isolation of Phaffia rhodozyma Mutants with Increased Astaxanthin Content. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 55(1):116-124 (PMC184064)
Warren RQ, Johnson EA, Donnelly RP, Lavia MF, Tsang KY. 1988. Specificity of anti-lymphocyte antibodies in sera from patients with AIDS-related complex (ARC) and healthy homosexuals. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 73(2):168-73 (PMC1541601)
Weir EC, Brownstein DG, Smith AL, Johnson EA. 1988. Respiratory disease and wasting in athymic mice infected with pneumonia virus of mice. Lab. Anim. Sci. 38(2):133-7
Whitmer ME, Johnson EA. 1988. Development of improved defined media for Clostridium botulinum serotypes A, B, and E. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 54(3):753-9 (PMC202536)
Mulloy B, Johnson EA. 1987. Assignment of the 1H-n.m.r. spectra of heparin and heparan sulphate. Carbohydr. Res. 170(2):151-65
Hughey VL, Johnson EA. 1987. Antimicrobial activity of lysozyme against bacteria involved in food spoilage and food-borne disease. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 53(9):2165-70 (PMC204075)
Jacoby RO, Bhatt PN, Gaertner DJ, Smith AL, Johnson EA. 1987. The pathogenesis of rat virus infection in infant and juvenile rats after oronasal inoculation. Arch. Virol. 95(3-4):251-70
Barthold SW, Bhatt PN, Johnson EA. 1987. Further evidence for papovavirus as the probable etiology of transmissible lymphoma of Syrian hamsters. Lab. Anim. Sci. 37(3):283-8
Johnson EA, Lin EC. 1987. Klebsiella pneumoniae 1,3-propanediol:NAD+ oxidoreductase. J. Bacteriol. 169(5):2050-4 (PMC212087)
Johnson EA, Levine RL, Lin EC. 1985. Inactivation of glycerol dehydrogenase of Klebsiella pneumoniae and the role of divalent cations. J. Bacteriol. 164(1):479-83 (PMC214271)